Original Research Article | OPEN ACCESS
Cytotoxic and growth inhibitory effects of the volatile oils of Eugenia caryophyllus (Myrtaceae), Callistemon citrinus (Myrtaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae)

Rose O Imade1 , Buniyamin A Ayinde1

1Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, 300001, Nigeria.

For correspondence:-  Rose Imade   Email: rose.jesuorobo@uniben.edu   Tel:+2348032444024

Published: 29 December 2018

Citation: Imade RO, Ayinde BA. Cytotoxic and growth inhibitory effects of the volatile oils of Eugenia caryophyllus (Myrtaceae), Callistemon citrinus (Myrtaceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae). J Sci Pract Pharm 2018; 5(2):249-255 doi:

© 2018 The authors.
This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or their institutions for access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) and the Budapest Open Access Initiative (http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read), which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited..


Purpose: Search for medicinal plants with anti-tumor activity has become imperative due to the incidence and burden of various types of cancer. Some volatile oil-containing plants like Eugenia caryophyllus buds, Callistemon citrinus leaves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes are indicated in ethnomedicine for the treatment of tumor-related ailments. These necessitated the evaluation of the volatile oils for cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activities on tadpoles of Ranniceps ranninus and guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) seeds respectively.

Methods: The volatile oils of the plants were obtained separately using Clavenger-type apparatus for at least 3 h. Using bench top assays, each volatile oil was examined for cytotoxicity test against tadpoles of R. ranninus at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 µg/mL. Their antiproliferative potentials were assayed by their ability to inhibit the radicle growth of guinea corn (S. bicolor) seeds at concentrations ranging from 0.1 – 30 mg/mL.

Results: The volatile oil yields of the plants were 5.3, 0.6, and 0.16% v/w for E. caryophyllus, C. citrinus and Zingiber officinale respectively.  At 20 μg/mL, the volatile oils of E. caryophyllus and Z. officinale exhibited 100% mortality on the tadpoles while the volatile oil of C. citrinus produced similar results at a concentration of 40 μg/mL. The LC50 were 12.8, 15.8 and 25.2 μg/mL respectively. On the growth inhibitory test, 100% reduction was observed with E. caryophyllus at 5 mg/ml while 68.59% and 44.08% reductions were produced by Z. officinale and C. citrinus oils respectively.

Conclusion: The results demonstrated that E. caryophyllus, C. citrinus and Z. officinale volatile oils may have cytotoxic and antiproliferative potentials as claimed in ethnomedicinal applications and may have therapeutic value in the management of tumor-related ailments.




Keywords: Cytotoxicity, growth inhibitory, Eugenia caryophyllus, Callistemon citrinus, Zingiber officinale

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