Original Research Article | OPEN ACCESS
Evaluation of millet (Pennisetum glaucum and Pennisetum americanum) starches as tablet disintegrants

Gideon O Okpanachi1,2 , Amodu Yakubu1,3, Hassan Musa1, Ademola R Oduola1,2

1Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gombe State University, Gombe State, Nigeria.; 3Federal Medical Centre Gusau, Zamfara State, Nigeria..

For correspondence:-  Gideon Okpanachi   Email: okpanachigideon@gmail.com   Tel:+2347034927739

Published: 29 December 2018

Citation: Okpanachi GO, Yakubu A, Musa H, Oduola AR. Evaluation of millet (Pennisetum glaucum and Pennisetum americanum) starches as tablet disintegrants. J Sci Pract Pharm 2018; 5(2):231-239 doi:

© 2018 The authors.
This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or their institutions for access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) and the Budapest Open Access Initiative (http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read), which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited..


Purpose: This study is aimed at evaluating the disintegrant property of locally sourced millet (Pennisetum glaucum (PG) and Pennisetum americanum (PA)) starches in comparison with maize starch BP (MS).

Methods: The millet starches were extracted by the wet extraction method and compared with MS as disintegrants at various concentrations (0-12.5%w/w) in the preparation of paracetamol granules and tablets. The granules were analyzed for their physicochemical properties such as; flow rate, moisture content, angle of repose, Carr’s index (CI), Hausner ratio (HR) and sieve analysis while the tablets were subjected to weight uniformity test, tablet thickness, crushing strength (CS) test, friability (FR) test and disintegration time (DT) test evaluations.

Results: The percentage yield of PA and PG starches were 56.2 and 50.0 % w/w respectively. PA and PG granules’ flow rate increased as the disintegrant concentration increased (8.06 to 13.17 g/sec) but MS had a better flow rate (<9.28 g/sec). The angle of repose for PA and PG ranges from 30.52 to 33.98o compared with MS of 23.11 to 33.11o. Moisture content of PA, PG and MS granules exceeded 20 %. The CI values for PA was <25 % PG increased from 18.40 to 28.06 % while MS was <25 %. HR values were all >1.2.The weight of the tablets produced ranges from 602±5.6 to 656±4.6 mg. Their thickness was in the range of 5.35 to 6.09 mm. The tablets were relatively hard (CS >5.0 kgf). Tablets with disintegrant concentration of 12.5 % w/w had values of FR >1.0 %. The DT for PA and PG decreased as disintegrant concentration increases but all the tablets DT was <1.0 min. The (CS/FR)/DT values for PA and PG (18.62 to 29.41) were greater than MS (7.41 to 23.97).

Conclusion: The study revealed that the locally sourced PA and PG starches can be used as disintegrants. The starches compared well with MS and could serve as an alternative to MS as a disintegrant in the manufacture of solid dosage forms.



Keywords: Disintegrant, tablets, Pennisetum glaucum, Pennisetum americanum, starch

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