Original Research Article | OPEN ACCESS

Evaluation of the antidiarrheal effects of the methanol extract of Waltheria indica L. (Sterculiaceae) leaves in albino mice and rats

Buniyamin A Ayinde1 , Omonkhelin J Owolabi2, Ifeyinwa S Uti3, Muhammad I Choudhary3

1Department of Pharmacognosy; 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria; 2PCMD, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi- 75270;

For correspondence:-  Buniyamin Ayinde   Email:  baayinde@uniben.edu   Tel:  +2347038708115

Published: 31 December 2017

Citation: Ayinde BA, Owolabi OJ, Uti IS, Choudhary MI. Evaluation of the antidiarrheal effects of the methanol extract of Waltheria indica L. (Sterculiaceae) leaves in albino mice and rats. J Sci Pract Pharm 2017; 4(1):145-151 doi: https://doi.org/10.47227/jsppharm/v4i1.1

© 2017 The author(s).
This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or their institutions for access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) and the Budapest Open Access Initiative (http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read), which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited..

Abstract

Purpose: Waltheria indica is a medicinal plant used in ethnomedicine to control dysentery and diarrhea. This work was therefore carried out to evaluate the effects of the leaves on the gastrointestinal tract using animal models.
Methods: After phytochemical screening, the powdered leaves were extracted with methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus. The acute toxicity of the methanol extract (1-5 g/kg) was evaluated in mice. Using charcoal meal intestinal transit and castor oil induced diarrhea models, the effect of the extract (100-400 mg/kg) on intestinal motility was evaluated in mice and rats respectively. The extract (20-80 mg/mL) was further evaluated on Ach-induced ileum contraction.
Results: The leaves of W. indica tested positive to the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and anthraquinones. Mice tolerated the extract up to 5.0 g/kg. The extract was observed to significantly (p < 0.05) reduce the motility of the charcoal meal in mice gastrointestinal tract. In the control animals, the charcoal moved up to 71.83 % of the intestine, whereas in the animals treated with 400 mg/kg, the movement was reduced to 42.87 % compared to 39.53 % in animals treated with atropine (0.1 mg/kg). In castor oil-induced diarrhea, the onset of stooling was 10 ± 1.0 min in the control animals after administration of the castor oil and 5.2 ± 0.9 wet stools were produced. The extract at 100 mg/kg delayed the onset of stooling to 62.33 ± 2.3 min; reduced the number of stools to 1.2 ± 0.6 while the animals treated with Loperamide (5.0 mg/kg) did not produce any stool. The extract significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the ileum contraction produced by Ach in a concentration-dependent manner.
Conclusion: The results confirm the ethnomedicinal application of W. indica leaf in the management of diarrhea

Keywords: Waltheria indica, phytochemical screening, antidiarrheal effect

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