Original Research Article | OPEN ACCESS

Super-disintegrant activity of acid-modified millet starch in diclofenac tablet formulations

Sylvester O Eraga , Vincent N Nwajuobi, Magnus A Iwuagwu

Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, 300001, Nigeria;

For correspondence:-  Sylvester Eraga   Email:  eragaso@uniben.edu   Tel:  +2348030884928

Published: 31 December 2017

Citation: Eraga SO, Nwajuobi VN, Iwuagwu MA. Super-disintegrant activity of acid-modified millet starch in diclofenac tablet formulations. J Sci Pract Pharm 2017; 4(1):161-168 doi: https://doi.org/10.47227/jsppharm/v4i1.3

© 2017 The author(s).
This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or their institutions for access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) and the Budapest Open Access Initiative (http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read), which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited..

Abstract

Purpose: To determine the effect of acid modification on the disintegrant activity of native millet starch in diclofenac sodium tablet formulation in comparison with sodium starch glycolate.
Methods: Diclofenac sodium tablets were prepared by direct compression using sodium starch glycolate, native and acid-modified millet starches at concentrations of 2.5 and 5 %w/w. The granules were evaluated for their flow properties while the tablets were evaluated for tablet dimensions, uniformity of weight, crushing strength, friability, disintegration time, wetting time and dissolution studies. Drug-excipient interaction using DSC and FTIR was also investigated.
Results: All the granules were free flowing with angles of repose and Carr's indices of < 31° and < 21 % respectively. The tablet hardness was between 4.3 - 6.5 kp while the friability values were < 1.0 %. They all showed good wetting and disintegration time of < 3 min and 7.5 min respectively. Only batches of tablets formulated with 5 %w/w of sodium starch glycolate and acid-modified millet starch met official specification for fast disintegrating tablets. Dissolution studies showed that all batches achieved over 90 % drug release in 30 min except tablets prepared with 2.5 %w/w of the native millet starch. DSC and FTIR analyses revealed no drug interactions with excipients.
Conclusion: The acid-modified millet starch showed a shorter disintegration time and a better dissolution profile when compared with the native millet starch. Acid modification imparts better disintegration and dissolution properties to the starch. The acid-modified millet starch can also be used as a cheaper alternative to sodium starch glycolate because of the comparable disintegration times and dissolution profiles of diclofenac sodium tablets formulated with these disintegrants

Keywords: Acid modification, millet starch, disintegrant, diclofenac, tablets

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