Original Research Article | OPEN ACCESS

Antiretroviral drug adverse reactions among HIV-positive patients at a tertiary care hospital in North-Eastern Nigeria

Shakirat I Bello1 , John D Ohieku2, Nasiru Y Ikunaiye3, Ibrahim M Kida4

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria, and Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, University of Ilorin, Nigeria.; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.; 3Antiretroviral/Infectious Disease Pharmacy Unit, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.; 4Infectious Disease Unit, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria..

For correspondence:-  Shakirat Bello   Email:  sibello10@yahoo.com   Tel:  +2348035675609

Published: 20 December 2020

Citation: Bello SI, Ohieku JD, Ikunaiye NY, Kida IM. Antiretroviral drug adverse reactions among HIV-positive patients at a tertiary care hospital in North-Eastern Nigeria. J Sci Pract Pharm 2020; 7(1):391-399 doi: https://doi.org/10.47227/jsppharm.v7i1.6

© 2020 The author(s).
This is an Open Access article that uses a funding model which does not charge readers or their institutions for access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) and the Budapest Open Access Initiative (http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read), which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited..

Abstract

Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among patients on antiretroviral drugs in a tertiary healthcare facility in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria.

Methods: The study was conducted among HIV-positive participants using validated questionnaires and personal interviews to obtain information on ADRs. Participants’ case notes were used to capture data on socio-demographic characteristics, clinical variables, and treatment profiles. The data collected were analyzed with STATA 10 software using logistic regression and descriptive analyses. 

Results:  The prevalence rate of ADRs was 26.6% among 134 patients. Gastrointestinal system disorders 40(8.0%), central and peripheral nervous system 38(7.5%), and systemic signs and symptoms 37(7.3%) were the most common clinical ADRs observed.  Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Nevirapine combination therapy was mostly implicated for the ADRs. Logistic regression analysis showed that the occurrence of ADRs was associated with marital status, viral load, and Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Nevirapine therapy.

Conclusion: The prevalence of ADRs reported in this study was low. Most of the patients with ADRs had mild effects. Marital status, viral load, and Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Nevirapine contributed to the development of the ADRs. There is a need to closely monitor HIV-infected patients by caregivers to further reduce the prevalence of ADRs and concomitant risks.

 

 

Keywords: Antiretrovirals, dolutegravir, gastrointestinal system, human immunodeficiency virus

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